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Undergraduate Catalog 2013-2014

Curriculum and Instruction - Secondary Education (EDCI)

College of Education
2311 Benjamin Building, 301-405-3324
www.education.umd.edu/TLPL
Chair: F. Hultgren (Prof & Chair)
Professors: P. Afflerbach, D. Chazan, M. Dreher, D. Imig (Prof Of Practice), S. Koziol (Assoc. Dean), J. MacSwan (Prof, Affiliate Prof), J. McGinnis, O. Saracho, D. Sullivan, L. Valli, D. Wiseman (Dean)
Associate Professors: P. Campbell, A. Elby (Assoc Prof, Affil Assoc Prof), D. Ketelhut (Assoc Prof), J. McCaleb, J. O'Flahavan, W. Slater, J. Turner
Assistant Professors: A. Brantlinger, L. Clark, A. Edwards, M. Hyler, V. MacDonald, M. Martin-Beltran, M. Peercy
Affiliate Professors: E. Redish
Affiliate Associate Professors: S. Benson, R. Lavine
Professors Emeriti: M. Chambliss, A. Graeber, W. Holliday, M. Johnson

The Major

The Department of Teaching and Learning, Policy and Leadership offers undergraduate curricula in secondary education that lead to the Bachelor of Science or Bachelor of Arts degree and prepares teachers in various subject areas for teaching in middle schools, secondary schools (grades 7-12), and PreK-12 settings (Art and World Languages).

Multiple pathways are available for individuals who are interested in teaching at the secondary level:

The Dual Major option, which is designed for incoming freshmen or sophomores, leads to the Bachelor's degree with a major in an academic content area plus a second major in secondary education. All secondary majors are required to have an academic content major which satisfies the requirements of the academic department and meets the standards for teacher certification. Candidates who follow the proposed sequencing of courses can complete both majors in four years with careful advisement and scheduling.

Teaching and Learning, Policy and Leadership also offers a five-year integrated master's with certification program.  See www.education.umd.edu/EDCI/info/tcert.htm.

Graduates of the Secondary Education programs meet the requirements for certification in Maryland and additional states that are affiliated with the Interstate Reciprocity Agreement through the Maryland State Department of Education.  

Program Learning Outcomes

1.  Secondary Education teacher candidates have in-depth knowledge of the subject matter that they teach as described in professional (e.g., National Council of Teachers of English - NCTE, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics - NCTM, etc.); state (MSDE); and, institutional standards. 

2.  Secondary Education teacher candidates can effectively plan classroom-based instruction or activities for their roles as teachers. Candidates' knowledge, skills, and dispositions are applied effectively in practice.

3.  Secondary Education teacher candidates practice evidence-based decision-making through the use of assessment as well as the critical interpretation of research and inquiry in order to improve educational practice.  They accurately assess and analyze student learning, make appropriate adjustments to instruction, monitor student learning, and have a positive effect on learning for all students.

4.  Secondary Education teacher candidates demonstrate understanding of learners and their social and cultural contexts with a global perspective and intentional sensitivity to other cultures.  They are able to work with students, families, and communities in ways that reflect the dispositions expected of professional educators as delineated in professional (e.g., NCTE, NCTM, etc.); state (MSDE); and, institutional standards. 

5.  Secondary Education teacher candidates competently integrate technology in instruction to support student learning and develop data-driven solutions for instructional and school improvement.  They demonstrate proficiency in each of the seven Maryland Teacher Technology Standards.

Academic Programs and Departmental Facilities

In addition to the double major program, the Department of Teaching and Learning, Policy and Leadership offers a Five-Year Integrated Master's with Certification Program (IMCP).  This program is intended for talented undergraduates with a minimum GPA of 3.0 who seek to combine undergraduate studies in the content area and professional education as a foundation for a focused professional year at the graduate level leading to secondary-level certification in the subject field and the Master's of Education degree. As undergraduates, teacher candidates are double majors in both secondary education and their content area.  While double majors, undergraduates complete a minimum of 12 credits in professional education studies related to teacher certification requirements. In their junior or senior year they apply to the graduate program. If they are admitted to the graduate program they enroll in a full-year internship. These individuals will also complete graduate-level professional studies that make them eligible for initial teacher certification and the master's of education degree.

Information about this secondary education program option is available at www.education.umd.edu/EDCI/info/tcert.htm.

Admission to the Major

Admission to the Teacher Education Professional Program is competitive. Admission procedures and criteria are explained in the College of Education entry in Chapter 6.

Placement in Courses

The Secondary Education programs include both pre-professional and professional education course work.  Before undergraduates may enroll in courses identified as part of the professional sequence, they must complete the selective admissions requirements and be fully admitted to the College of Education's Teacher Education program. Admission procedures and criteria are explained in the College of Education entry. Teacher candidates will not be permitted to enroll in professional sequence courses -- including the yearlong internship -- prior to completion of the selective admissions requirements and full admission to the College of Education.

Requirements for the Major

All Teacher Education Programs have designated pre-professional courses and a specified sequence of professional courses. Before undergraduates may enroll in professional education course requirements they must be fully admitted to the College of Education's Teacher Education Program. An overall grade point average of 2.75 must be maintained after admission to Teacher Education. All teacher candidates are required to obtain satisfactory evaluations on the College of Education Foundational Competencies/Technical Standards and to attain qualifying scores for the State of Maryland on the Praxis I and Praxis II assessments. Praxis I is required for admission, and Praxis II is required for the teaching internship and graduation. The culminating experience of the program is the yearlong internship, which takes place in a Collaborating School (i.e., partner school, PDS - Professional Development School).

Curriculum and Instruction offers a variety of secondary education programs-tracks leading to the Bachelor of Science and Bachelor of Arts degrees. Teacher candidates who complete a secondary education program at UM meet the Maryland State Department of Education requirements for the Professional Eligibility Certificate. Consult the Curriculum and Instruction program advisor for updated information.

Foreign-Language Requirement, Bachelor of Arts Degree

Beginning fall 2011 high school language will no longer place undergraduates in foreign language classes nor exempt individuals from taking the foreign language placement exam. All teacher candidates planning to study a foreign language will be required to take a foreign language placement test. This test is used to determine the appropriate placement prior to course registration. For more information, contact the Office of Student Affairs in the College of Arts and Humanities at arhuadvising@umd.edu or 301-405-2108.

Art Education (pre K-12)

The Art Education curriculum is designed to prepare individuals to teach art in elementary through secondary schools. It provides prospective art teachers with a knowledge base about the theories and best practices relevant to effective pedagogy, as well as current education and art education goals and standards. Teacher candidates admitted to Art Education complete the Bachelor of Arts and are required to have an academic content major.

For more information on the sequence of pre-professional and professional courses, consult the Curriculum and Instruction program advisor.

    Credits
  Pre-Professional/Subject Area Courses  
  Note: Course Sequencing is under review.  
ARTT150 Introduction to Art Theory  3
ARTT100 Two Dimensional Design Fundamentals  3
ARTT110 Elements of Drawing I  3
ARTH200 Art of the Western World to 1300  3
ARTH201 Art of the Western World after 1300  3
ARTH 300-400 level  6
ARTT200 Three-Dimensional Art Fundamentals  3
ARTT210 Elements of Drawing II  3
ARTT320 Elements of Painting  3
ARTT418 Advanced Drawing Studio 3
ARTT428 Advanced Painting Studio 3
EDCI407 Practicum in Art Education: Three Dimensional (Spring only) 3
  One from: 3
ARTT340 Elements of Printmaking: Intaglio   
ARTT341 Elements of Printmaking: Woodcut and Relief  
ARTT342 Elements of Printmaking: Collagraphy  
ARTT343 Elements of Printmaking: Screen Printing  
ARTT344 Elements of Printmaking: Lithography  
     
  Pre-Professional/Education Courses  
EDHD413 Adolescent Development 3
EDHD426 Cognition & Motivation in Reading: Reading in Content Areas I 3
EDCI463  Reading in the Secondary School  3 
   One from:  
EDPS301 Foundations of Education 3
EDPS201 Education in Contemporary American Society  
EDPS210 Historical and Philosophical Perspectives on Education  
     
  Professional Education Courses  
EDCI405 Art Education Methods I (Spring only) 3
EDSP470 Introduction to Special Education 3
EDCI403 Teaching Art Criticism and Aesthetics (Fall only) 3
EDCI400* Field Experience in Art Education (Fall only), and 1
EDCI423* Art Education Methods II (Fall only) 3
EDCI406 Technology and Two-Dimensional Art (Fall only) 3
EDCI401 Student Teaching in Elementary Schools: Art 6
EDCI402 Student Teaching in Secondary Schools: Art  6
EDCI404 Student Teaching Seminar: Art Education 3
   *EDCI400 and EDCI423 taken concurrently
 
 

English Education (Grades 7-12)

Undergraduates who complete the English Education curriculum receive the Bachelor of Arts degree and meet the MSDE requirements for the Professional Eligibility Certificate. Teacher education candidates admitted to English Education are required to have an academic content major and must complete the following program requirements. Please check with the ENGL department regarding specific coursework.

    Credits
  Pre-Professional/Subject Area Courses  
FRGN LANG Foreign Language (Intermediate mastery of a modern or classical language is required.) 8
ENGL280 Introduction to English Language 3
ENGL301 Critical Methods in the Study of Literature 3
ENGL428 Seminar in Language and Literature 3
    One from: 3
COMM107 Oral Communication: Principles and Practices  
COMM125 Introduction to Interpersonal Communication  
COMM220 Small Group Discussion   
    One from: 3
COMM230 Argumentation and Debate  
COMM330 Argumentation and Public Policy  
COMM383 Urban Communication  
COMM402 Communication Theory and Process   
    One from: 3
ENGL101* Academic Writing  
ENGL101H* Honors Composition  
     One from:  3
ENGL201 Western World Literature, Homer to the Renaissance  
ENGL202 Western World Literature, Renaissance to the Present  
    One from:
ENGL304 The Major Works of Shakespeare  
ENGL403 Shakespeare: The Early Works  
ENGL404 Shakespeare: The Later Works   
    One from: 3
ENGL384 Concepts of Grammar  
ENGL383 The Uses of Language  
ENGL385 English Semantics  
ENGL482 History of the English Language  
ENGL483 American English  
ENGL484 Advanced English Grammar  
ENGL486 Introduction to Old English  
ENGL489 Special Topics in English Language  
    One from:   3
ENGL391 Advanced Composition  
ENGL393 English Technical Writing  
ENGL493 Advanced Expository Writing  
     One from:  
ENGL487 Foundations of Rhetoric 3
COMM360 The Rhetoric of Black America  
COMM401 Interpreting Strategic Discourse  
COMM453 The Power of Discourse in American Life  
   British and American Literature: 15 
  one upper-level course in each of five out of the following six areas to be taken during the sophomore and junior years; one of these five courses must be in American Literature (15 credits total)  
   1. Medieval Literature  
   2. Renaissance Literature other than Shakespeare  
   3. Restoration or 18th Century Literature  
   4. 19th Century British Literature  
   5. American Literature before 1900  
   6. 20th Century British or American Literature  
  Elective:  
ENGL ENGL Elective Women or Minority course  3
   *If exempt from ENGL101, majors are required to take ENGL291 Intermediate Writing or ENGL294 Introduction to Creative Writing.
     
  Pre-Professional/Education Courses  
EDHD413 Adolescent Development  3
EDHD426 Cognition & Motivation in Reading: Reading in Content Areas I  3
EDCI463 Reading in the Secondary School  3
   One from: 3
 EDPS301 Foundations of Education  
 EDPS201 Education in Contemporary American Society  
 EDPS210 Historical and Philosophical Perspectives on Education  
     
  Professional Education Courses  
EDCI466 Literature for Adolescents (Spring only) 3
EDCI467* Teaching Writing (Fall only, Senior Year) 3
EDCI416 Teaching and Learning om Secondary Education: English  (Fall only, Junior Year) 3
EDCI417 Bases for English Language Instruction  3
EDCI447* Field Experience in English Teaching 1
EDCI440** Internship Seminar in Secondary Education: English  1
EDCI441** Internship in Secondary Schools: English  12
EDCI474 Teaching Academically, Culturally, and Linguistically Diverse Students in Secondary Education 2
  *EDCI447 and EDCI467 taken concurrently  
  **EDCI440 and EDCI441 taken concurrently  

For more information on the sequence of pre-professional and professional courses, consult the Curriculum and Instruction program advisor.

Foreign Language Education (Grades 7-12)

The Foreign Language (FL) Education curriculum is designed for prospective foreign language teachers in grades 7-12 who have been admitted to the EDCI Teacher Education Program. Currently, admission is open to qualified candidates seeking teacher certification in Spanish, French, Russian, Italian, Chinese and German. Other languages might be added later for teacher certification. Teacher candidates enrolled in foreign language education are required to have an academic content major. Consult with an advisor in Curriculum and Instruction for further information.

A minimum of six hours of intermediate-level language course work in the major language must precede the required 300-400 level courses. The latter are comprised of a minimum of 30 hours of prescribed course work that includes the areas of reading strategies, grammar and composition, conversation, literature, civilization and culture, and linguistics. Teacher candidates must also take a minimum of nine hours (three courses) of electives in a related area. The second area of concentration must be approved by a FL advisor.

In addition to all coursework, teacher candidates must earn an Intermediate High score on the ACTFL oral proficiency exam in their corresponding foreign language. Majors in Russian, Italian, and Chinese must also earn an Intermediate High score on the ACTFL written proficiency test.

The following requirements must be met with the FL Education program:

    Credits
  Pre-Professional/Subject Area Courses  
Primary FL Area Intermediate (200 level) courses 6
Primary FL Area Reading Strategies  3
Primary FL Area Grammar and Composition (300-400 levels)  6
Primary FL Area Survey of Literature (300-400 levels) 6
Primary FL Area Conversation (300-400 levels) 3
Primary FL Area Literature (400-above levels)  6
Primary FL Area Culture and Civilization  6
Primary FL Area Applied Linguistics, OR 3
  LING200* Introductory Linguistics  
ELECTIVES           Electives in Supporting Area/FL-Related Courses (minimum of three courses)  9
  *Applied Linguistics in the Primary FL Area if available; otherwise LING200 may satisfy this requirement; check with your advisor.  
In almost all instances, Primary FL Area courses must have been completed prior to the Teaching Internship. Any substitutions for the above must be pre-approved by a FL Education Advisor.
     
Note: The pre-professional courses vary by subject area. Consult the academic department for the specific course requirements for each language area.
    Credits
  Pre-Professional/Education Courses  
EDHD413 Adolescent Development  3
EDHD426 Cognition & Motivation in Reading: Reading in Content Areas I  3
EDCI463 Reading in the Secondary School  3
   One from:  3
EDPS301 Foundations of Education  
EDPS201 Education in Contemporary American Society  
EDPS210 Historical and Philosophical Perspectives on Education  
     
  Professional Education Courses  
EDCI410 Methods I: K-12 Foreign Language Methods and Technology (Fall only) 3
EDCI433 Advanced K-12 Foreign Language Methods and Technology (Fall only) 3
EDCI438 Field Experience in Second Language Education (Fall only) 1
EDCI430 Teaching Internship Seminar in Secondary Education: Foreign Language  1
EDCI431 Teaching Internship in Secondary Schools: Foreign Language  12
EDCI474 Teaching Academically, Culturally, and Linguistically Diverse Students in Secondary Education 2
     

Mathematics Education (Grades 7-12)

Undergraduates who complete the Mathematics Education curriculum receive the Bachelor of Science degree and meet the MSDE requirements for the Professional Eligibility Certificate. Teacher candidates admitted to Mathematics Education are required to have an academic content major and must complete the following program requirements. Please check with the MATH department regarding specific math courses to be taken.

    Credits
  Pre-Professional/Education Courses  
EDHD413 Adolescent Development  3
EDHD426 Cognition & Motivation in Reading: Reading in Content Areas I 3
EDCI463 Reading in the Secondary School  3
   One from: 3
EDPS301  Foundations of Education  
EDPS201  Education in Contemporary American Society  
EDPS210  Historical and Philosophical Perspectives on Education  
     
  Professional Education Courses  
EDCI457 Teaching and Learning Middle School Mathematics (Fall only, Junior Year) 3
EDCI455 Teaching and Learning in High School Mathematics (Fall only, Senior Year) 3
EDCI355 Field Experience in Secondary Mathematics Education (Fall only, Senior Year) 1
EDCI450 Internship Seminar in Secondary Education: Mathematics 1
EDCI451 Student Teaching in Secondary Schools: Mathematics 12
EDCI474 Teaching Academically, Culturally, and Linguistically Diverse Students in Secondary Education 2

Science Education (Grades 7-12)

Please check with the science department regarding specific course work.

Teacher candidates may earn credentials in biology, chemistry, geology, physics or agriculture. Undergraduates admitted to the secondary program in science education must complete a major in their area of specialization. Candidates should consult the respective departments for requirements. For more information, please see www.education.umd.edu/science.

    Credits
  Pre-Professional Education Courses  
EDHD426 Cognition & Motivation in Reading: Reading in Content Areas I 3
EDHD413 Adolescent Development 3
EDCI463 Reading in the Secondary School  3
   One from: 3
 EDPS301  Foundations of Education  
 EDPS201  Education in Contemporary American Society  
 EDPS210  Historical and Philosophical Perspectives on Education  
     
  Professional Education Courses  
  All areas of science education will be required to complete the following professional education courses:  
EDCI411 Knowledge, Reasoning, and Learning in Science (Fall only) 3
EDCI375 Field Experience in Science Education  1
EDCI470 Learning and Teaching in Science (Fall only, Senior Year) 3
EDCI471 Internship in Secondary Schools: Science  12
EDCI474 Teaching Academically, Culturally, and Linguistically Diverse Students in Secondary Education 2
EDCI480 Practices in Secondary School Science Teaching  2

Social Studies Education (Grades 7-12)

The Social Studies Education program is under review.  Contact an advisor in 1207 Benjamin Building for updated program information.

Undergraduates in the Social Studies Education program may select an area of concentration in history, geography, or government and politics. Each concentration follows the general requirements of their respective majors in addition to the pre-professional/subject area supporting course work required for certification. Teacher candidates may elect to complete the program for certification in Social Studies by choosing one of three options for completing the program.

Option I: History
This option requires completion of the foreign language requirement and is primarily for those teacher candidates earning their initial degree. Requires 68 semester hours of which 39 credit hours must be in history. 

Note:The history major requires completion of UNIV 101 and a foreign language requirement through the intermediate level. See ARHU advising for details.

    Credits
  Pre-Professional/Subject Area Courses  
  Introductory Courses:  
HIST200 History of the United States 3
HIST201 History of the United States 3
HIST100/200 Non-US, prior to 1500 (see advisor for approved courses) 3
HIST208 Historical Research and Methods Seminar 3
HIST408 Senior Seminar 3
     
  History Electives 24
  Out of a total 24 credits :  
HIST *18 credits must be at the junior/senior level
  *15 credits must be in a concentration  
  * one course must be non-Western  
  In addition to the required credit hours in history, the social studies education program requires 29 credit hours of course work in geography and the social sciences as outlined below:
 
 
GEOG100 Introduction to Geography  3
GEOG202 Introduction to Human Geography 3
ECON200 Principles of Micro-Economics 4
ECON201 Principles of Macro-Economics 4
   One from:  
GVPT100 Principles of Government and Politics 3
  GVPT260 State and Local Government, or  
  GVPT280 Comparative Politics and Governments  
GVPT170 American Government 3
SOCY100/105 Introduction to Sociology or Introduction to Contemporary Social Problems  3
PSYC100 Introduction to Psychology  3
ANTH240/260 Introduction to Archaeology or Introduction to Sociological Anthropology and Linguistics 3
     
  Pre-Professional/Education Courses  
EDPS301 Foundations of Education, or 3
  EDPS201 Education in Contemporary American Society, or  
  EDPS210 Historical and Philosophical Perspectives on Education  
EDHD413 Adolescent Development 3
EDHD426 Cognition & Motivation in Reading: Reading in the Content Areas I  3
EDCI463 Reading in the Secondary School 3
     
  Professional Education Courses  
EDCI426 Knowledge, Reasoning, and Learning in Secondary Social Studies (Fall only, Junior Year) 3
EDCI427* Curriculum, Teaching, and Assessment in Secondary Social Studies (Fall only, Senior Year) 3
EDCI428* Field Experience in Secondary Social Studies Teaching (Fall only) 1
EDCI421 Student Teaching in Secondary Schools: Social Studies 12
EDCI474 Teaching Academically, Culturally, and Linguistically Diverse Students in Secondary Education 2
EDCI420 Student Teaching Seminar in Secondary Education: Social Studies) 1
  *EDCI 427 and EDCI428 are taken concurrently  

Option II: Geography

This option is primarily for those teacher candidates earning their initial degree and requires 64 credits of Pre-professional/Subject Area course work.  Thirty-five credit hours must be in geography.  Nine credit hours of 300 level Gateway courses must be taken in physical geography, human geography, and geographic techniques.  The remaining 18 credit hours must include a quantitative methods course and 15 credit hours of upper level systematic geography courses.

    Credits
  Pre-Professional/Subject Area Courses  
  Primary Courses:  
GEOG201 Geography of Environmental Systems 3
GEOG211 Geography of Environmental Systems Laboratory 1
GEOG202 Introduction to Human Geography 3
GEOG212 Introduction to Human Geography Laboratory 1
     
  Gateway Courses:  
GEOG3xx one 300 level physical geography course  3
GEOG3xx one 300 level human geography course 3
GEOG3xx one 300 level technique course  3
GEOG3xx/4xx Upper Level Geography Electives 15
GEOG306 Introduction to Quantitative Methods for the Geographic Environmental Sciences 3
     
  In addition to the required credit hours in geography, the social studies education program requires 29 credit hours of course work in history and the social sciences as outlined below.
ECON200 Principles of Micro-Economics 4
ECON201 Principles of Macro-Economics 4
GVPT100 Principles of Government and Politics 3
  GVPT260 State and Local Government, or  
  GVPT280 Comparative Politics and Governments  
GVPT170 American Government 3
HIST201 History of the United States since 1865 3
HIST100/200 HIST (non-Western 100/200 level) 3
PSYC100 Introduction to Psychology 3
ANTH240/260 Introduction to Archaeology or Introduction to Sociological Anthropology and Linguistics 3
SOCY100/105 Introduction to Sociology or Introduction to Social Problems 3
  Pre-Professional/Education Courses  
EDPS301 Foundations of Education, or 3
  EDPS201 Education in Contemporary American Society, or  
  EDPS210 Historical and Philosophical Perspectives on Education  
EDHD413 Adolescent Development 3
EDHD426 Cognition&Motivation in Reading:Reading in Content Areas I 3
EDCI463 Reading in the Secondary School 3
     
  Professional Education Courses  
EDCI426 Materials & Resources in Social Studies (Fall only, Junior Year) 3
EDCI427* Curriculum and Instruction in Secondary Education - Social Studies (Fall only, Senior Year) 3
EDCI428* Field Experience in Secondary Social Studies Teaching (Fall only) 1
EDCI421 Student Teaching in Secondary Schools: Social Studies 12
EDCI474 Inclusion, Diversity, and Professionalism in Secondary Education 2
EDCI420 Student Teaching Seminar in Secondary Education: Social Studies) 1
  *EDCI 427 and EDCI428 are taken concurrently  

Option III: Government and Politics

The Government and Politics program is under review. Please check with the Government Department regarding specific course work.

This option is primarily for those teacher candidates earning their initial degree. Requires a minimum of 65 credit hours of preprofessional/subject area course work. Thirty-six hours must be in GVPT. At least eighteen of the thirty-six credit hours must be upper-level courses.

All GVPT majors must also complete an approved skills option (a foreign language or three quantitative courses from a select list - see GVPT advising office.)

In addition, the GVPT program is a Limited Enrollment Program (LEP). See GVPT advisor for specific admission requirements.

    Credits
  Pre-Professional/Subject Area Courses  
  Introductory Courses:  
GVPT100 Principles of Government and Politics 3
GVPT170 American Government 3
GVPT241 The Study of Political Philosophy: Ancient and Modern 3
ELECTIVES GVPT Electives  9
GVPT3xx/4xx GVPT Upper Level Courses 18
     
  Social Science Quantitative Courses or Foreign Language (see GVPT advisor)  
  In addition to the required credit hours in GVPT, the social studies education program requires 29 credit hours of course work in history and the social sciences as outlined below.
HIST201 History of the United States since 1865 3
HIST100/200 Non-Western History 100/200 level 3
ECON200 Principles of Micro-Economics 4
ECON201 Principles of Macro-Economics 4
PSYC100 Introduction to Psychology 3
ANTH240/260 Introduction to Archaeology or Introduction to Anthropology and Linguistics 3
GEOG100 Introduction to Geography  3
GEOG202 Introduction to Human Geography 3
SOCY100/105 Contemporary Social Problems